Posts tagged ‘word of the week’

June 27th, 2012

Word of the Week Wednesday: Monad

by Max Andrews

Word of the Week: Mondad

Definition: The one and only substance, which composes existence

More about the term: The big problem for Leibniz was, mathematically, if something takes up a finite amount of space then it must be divisible.  This was the infinite divisibility of matter (DM, Sec. 9, lines 6-9).  Why is this a problem? Because he’s trying to solve the question, “What is substance?” Sub+stans, that which stands underneath. This is where he gets the word monad, mono-, one, unity.  A monad must have these qualities:

  • Cannot be divided any further
  • Does not have parts
  • Not material, but rather more like a soul
  • According to Leibniz, they are a spritual substance
  • Infinite number of them
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June 6th, 2012

Word of the Week Wednesday: Kerygma

by Max Andrews

Word of the Week: Kerygma (pronounced care-ïgma and not kurigma)

Definition: God’s gift, the call of the Gospel, whereby a person can come out of bondage and can now become an authentic self.

More about the term: This was predominately advocated and used by Rudolph Bultmann. Kerygma is the means by which one can come back to his or herself into authenticity out from the fallen self. It allows for the transition from seeking to establish a worldly security leading to the one’s desire to live totally unto God.  The kerygma is given as a gift. It is the power to overcome inauthenticity, estrangement, and the ability to obey the Gospel call and to obey God.

May 2nd, 2012

Word of the Week Wednesday: Existential Absurdity

by Max Andrews

Word of the Week: Existential Absurdity

Definition: Absurdity is an understanding or a concept in which the individual is superfluous.

More on the term:  This superfluity of being is due to having no allotted place in any necessary scheme of things. Some people invent teleologies in an attempt to lend things a place in overarching schemes but it is an illusion.[1]  According to Albert Camus, man has a longing for reason.  In this world people have understood that there is “irrationality” to reality thus a “despair of true knowledge.”  There still remains a longing for reason despite the recognition of absurdity.  From this, absurdity is born.[2]Camus recognized that man needs to understand this despair and come to terms with it.  His teleology was simply to live life together with others and love one another. There are two types of absurdity: subjective and objective.

April 25th, 2012

Word of the Week Wednesday: Creatio de Novo

by Max Andrews

The Word of the Week is: Creatio de Novo

Definition:  Latin for creation [or created] afresh.

More about the term:  Progressive creationism sees the creative work of God as a combination of a series of de novo creative acts and an immanent or processive operation.  God at several points, rather widely separated in time, created de novo.  On these occasions he did not make use of previously existing life, simply modifying it.  While he might have brought into being something quite similar to an already existing creation, there were a number of changes and the product of his work was a completely new creature.  Notice that this is completely compatible with common descent evolution and intelligent design.  This isn’t Darwinism but it may be accurate to say that creatio de novo is a categorically acceptable position for theistic evolutionists.  God takes preexisting forms and adds information to that form to have a creation de novo.

For more on this please see Millard Erickson’s Christian Theology ed 2; Hugh Ross’ A Matter of Days; and Fuz Rana’s Who Was Adam?

April 11th, 2012

Word of the Week Wednesday: Ding an Sich

by Max Andrews

The Word of the Week is: Ding an Sich

Definition:  German–sometimes appearing as Dinge an Sich, which means ‘the thing itself.’

More about the term:  When drawing out the distinction between ‘subjective’ and ‘objective’ Ding an Sich refers to the thing objectively to itself.  For instance, in Kantian terms,space and time was debated as to whether it was a necessary intuition (one of Kant’s twelve categories of the mind) belonging subjectively to appearances (Ersheinungen) or objectively to the thing itself (Ding an Sich).  Kant believed that such spatiotemporal properties belong to Ersheinungen buy excluded such properties to the things as they really are, Ding an Sich.

February 8th, 2012

Word of the Week Wednesday: Multiverse

by Max Andrews

The Word of the Week is: Multiverse

Definition: The term to designate the existence of many worlds or universes.  Contrary to just one world, a uni-verse, there are many worlds, a multi-verse.

More about the term: The multiverse is not monolithic but it is modeled after the contemporary understanding of an inflationary model of the beginning of this universe suggesting a plurality of worlds.  Max Tegmark has championed the most prominent versions of the multiverse.[1]  There are four levels of the multiverse.

  1.  Level One:  The level one is, for the most part, more space beyond the observable universe.  So, theoretically, if we were to go to the “edge” of the universe there would be more space.  Having this model as a version of the multiverse may be misleading because there is still only one volume, landscape, or system involved.  A generic prediction of cosmological inflation is an infinite space, which contains Hubble volumes (what we see in our universe) realizing in all conditions—including an identical copy of each of us about 10^10^29 meters away.[2]
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January 25th, 2012

Word of the Week Wednesday: Existential Instantiation

by Max Andrews

The Word of the Week is: Existential Instantiation

Definition: A rule of inference that introduces existential quantifiers.  The symbol for an existential quantifier is (∃x).

More about the term: The existential quantifier indicates that there is at least one thing in a categorical reference.  Instantiation is an operation that removes a quantifier and replaces every variable bound by the quantifier with that same instantial letter.  There are eight rules of inference to derive a conclusion of an argument via deduction:

  1. Modus Ponens: p ⊃ q … p… .:q
  2. Modus Tollens: p ⊃ q … ~q … .: ~p
  3. Pure Hypothetical Syllogism: p ⊃ q … q ⊃ r … .: p ⊃ r
  4. Disjunctive Syllogism: p v q … ~q … .:p
  5. Constructive Dilemma: (p ⊃ q) & (r ⊃ s) … p v r … .: q v s
  6. Simplification: p & q… .: p
  7. Conjunction: p … q … .: p & q
  8. Addition: p … .: p v q

January 18th, 2012

Word of the Week Wednesday: Heilsgeschichte

by Max Andrews

The Word of the Week is: Heilsgeschichte (hiyels-ge-sheek-te)

Definition: When translated from German it literally means “salvation history.”

More about the term: Heilsgeschichte is an organizing principle developed by Oscar Cullman for the various New Testament titles for Jesus. Cullman’s Christology is centered on what Jesus has done in history.

It is a characteristic of New Testament Christology that Christ is connected with the total history of revelation and salvation, beginning with creation. There can be no Heilsgeschichte without Christology; no Christology without a Heilsgeschichte which unfolds in time. Christology is the doctrine of an event, not the doctrine of natures. (Oscar Cullman, The Christology of the New Testament, rev. ed. [Philadelphia: Westminster, 1963], 9).

January 11th, 2012

Word of the Week Wednesday 1/11/12

by Max Andrews

The Word of the Week is: Quantum-Logic

Definition:  An interpretation of quantum mechanics developed by John von Neumann in the late 1930′s.  Quantum logic says that everyday logic cannot be applied to the quantum world.  Contrary to Boolean logic, quantum logic says that and and either do not have the same meaning in the quantum world.

More about the term:  This interpretation isn’t known to be deterministic or indeterministic.  That is still up for debate.  However, there is no collapse of the wave function.  Also, local causation is uncertain as well.  There is little debate on the issue but the majority understanding of this is that it has a unique history (contrary to other non-collapse interpretations like Many Worlds).  When using Boolean logic to assess quantum logic it may seem that quantum logic is self-contradictory; however, if quantum logic is assessed internally it is indeed consistent.  The major problem for this system is extrapolating applied logic.  Boolean logic is certainly valid in everyday life but is invalid in the quantum world.  One way or another it seems that contradictions may arise somewhere along the way.  For more information see John Gribbin’s Q is for Quantum.

Example of use:  Consider the double slit experiment where a photon is shot at a wall with two slits and the photon goes through either one (or both).  So, because there is no wave collapse the photon actually goes through both slits.  There’s a different logical significance in this experiment.