Abraham Varghese examines five mental phenomena with three preliminary comments: 1) These are not proofs but transcendent necessary conditions 2) These are not probabilities or hypotheses but “fundamental realities that cannot be denied without contradiction” and 3) Immediate experience of these phenomena are sufficient evidence.
The general argument: Materialism can never produce these phenomena–a mind is the only necessary and sufficient explanation.
Phenomenon 1: Rationality
The universe is rational; it has an inner logic that we are capable of understanding. There is a correlation between the workings of nature and our abstract description of those workings. Atheists cannot account for this on the basis of natural laws nor on the basis of something coming from nothing. Nothing has no properties.