Posts tagged ‘Immanuel Kant’

February 5th, 2015

Rationalism and Empiricism

by Max Andrews

Rationalism & Empiricism, a priori & a posteriori, Analytic & Synthetic—Differences?

In regards to rationalism and empiricism, the rationalist says that knowledge can be known by reason alone whereas the empiricist will claim that knowledge is derived from the senses–we are born tabula rasa, a blank slate for a mind and we fill that slate with sense perceptions. The rationalist will have no problem affirming the synthetic a priori and analytic a posteriori category. The empiricist will primarily affirm the analytic a priori and synthetic a posteriori (although there is definite psychological overlap–the affirmations primarily concern epistemic justification).

Analytic Synthetic
a priori “All bachelors are not married.”

“Triangles have three angles.”

Mathematics (4+8+15+16+23+42=108)

Objective Morality? (e.g. Kant’s pure reason)

a posteriori “Gold has the atomic weight of 196.966543” “This elephant is gray.”

“Edinburgh receives more rain than the Sahara.”

Subjective Morality? (e.g. “Twenty’s Plenty”)


December 30th, 2014

The History of Subjectivism

by Max Andrews

Subjectivism begins with personal experience. One might actually regard philosophical subjectivism as doing philosophy from the inside-out (which can eventually lead to critical-realism/non-realism). Both René Descartes (1596-1650) and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) attempted to construct philosophical systems from this starting point (although in the end both were realists). In the modern world subjectivist philosophies have become very popular as they challenge the notion of absolute Truth which allows people to democratize truths. This means truths become relative to each person. As a result, a society built on subjectivist principles is believed to be tolerant and willing to allow people to live and let live (providing they do not harm others – which, ironically, is not a subjective, and therefore relative, statement).

December 14th, 2012

Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone Synopsis

by Max Andrews

Immanuel Kant’s Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone synopsis

  • How the free will, even though radically evil, can regenerate itself
  • How Christianity as rationally interpreted exemplifies this process of moral regeneration
  • As such, two views about humanity are rejected by Kant
  • Rejects the view of the enlightenment (Aufklarung) that humans are basically good
  • Rejects the view of human depravity
  • How can the evil disposition be converted to a good one? How is it that oughtness is a can?
  • There must be a revolution of habits, which Kant understands to be the new birth (Jn. 3)
  • How, if we are corrupt, can we cause ourselves to be born again?
    read more »

November 17th, 2012

“God and the Multiverse” EPS 2012 Paper

by Max Andrews

David Beck and I recently presented a paper on God and the multiverse at the annual Evangelical Philosophical Society conference in Milwaukee, WI on November 14, 2012. In this paper we argue that if a multiverse exists then it is harmonious with theism. Not only do we argue that it’s compatible with theism but we develop a distinctly Christian approach to it. We trace the idea of many worlds back to the pre-Socratics, which contributed to a theistic framework. We use Thomas Aquinas, Leibniz, Kant, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and others to create a Christian model of modal realism. We have called our model “Thomistic Modal Realism.” We plan on explicating the paper and submitting it for publication soon. Please feel free to comment and leave feedback in the comment section. Any and all appropriate/substantive feedback will help us strengthen our model.

October 18th, 2012

The Epistemology Directory

by Max Andrews
Below is a collection of all my blog posts specifically related to epistemology.
  1. My Evidentialist Epistemology
  2. Onto-Relationships and Epistemology
  3. Why Plantinga’s Warrant Cannot Circumvent the Gettier Problem
  4. A General Rule for Gettier Cases
  5. Empiricism and Being in the Right Phenomenological Frame of Mind
  6. Meet Philosopher Linda Zagzebski
  7. The Connection Between Phenomenology and Existentialism
  8. A Response to Alvin Plantinga’s “The Reformed Objection to Natural Theology”
  9. Alex Rosenberg on Whether Philosophy Emerges from Science
  10. Steven Wykstra’s “Toward a Sensible Evidentialism: ‘On the Notion of Needing Evidence.'”
  11. Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Epistemology
  12. New Paper: “Epistemological Scientific Realism and the Onto-Relationship of Inferentially Justified and Non-Inferentially Justified Beliefs”
    read more »

June 13th, 2012

Immanuel Kant’s Use of Newtonian Mechanics

by Max Andrews

Newtonian physics treated space and time as absolute inertial reference frames. Space and time was independent of all that it embraced and in that sense, absolute.  Space and time was isomorphic, and together with the particle theory of nature formed a mechanistic universe and static concepts that go along with it. Kant used Newtonian physics of space and time as intuitions.  The sensorium (reference frame) was transferred from space and time itself (or even God) to the mind of the subject.  Thus, the intellect imposes its laws upon nature and not nature upon the intellect.  Kant believed our thought imposes Newtonian concepts on our experiences.  Independent of experience our minds are organized to think about the world in the Newtonian framework.  Scientific knowledge was considered a priori knowledge of synthetic truths.[1]

This is what accounted for deductive methodology—using fixed premises and drawing one’s conclusions from these premises.  Kant believed that one could not know the Ding an Sich by pure reason.  The subject is limited to the fixed categories of the mind and one shapes the apprehensions through these categories.  Kant used these space and time intuitions as necessary. It proved inept for scientists to follow Kant’s use of Newton’s ideas as permanent features of the intellectual landscape having based their philosophy on his model of the universe.[2]

In 1865 James Clerk Maxwell had unified electricity and magnetism by developing his equations of electromagnetism.[3]  It was soon realized that these equations supported wave-like solutions in a region free of electrical charges or currents, otherwise known as vacuums.[4]  Later experiments identified light as having electromagnetic properties and Maxwell’s equations predicted that light waves should propagate at a finite speed c (about 300,000 km/s).  With his Newtonian ideas of absolute space and time firmly entrenched, most physicists thought that this speed was correct only in one special frame, absolute rest, and it was thought that electromagnetic waves were supported by an unseen medium called the ether, which is at rest in this frame.[5]

May 31st, 2012

Theology Thursday: Kant Part 2

by Max Andrews

Theologian: Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) on the Person of Christ

More on his theology: The ideal of the perfect human is in one sense innate in all humans.  By living in the cat-imp, the moral reason (faith), we become Sons of God and attain perfection.  Even though never named, Jesus is alluded to and made the obvious choice and is the example we are to live by as he lived the cat-imp perfectly, by adopting moral principles as your own and striving toward perfection.  Jesus is the historical exemplar of the ideal that God has in his mind and is the example of attaining moral perfection.  By regarding as our archetype the Son of God who assumed “sorrows in fullest measure in order to further the world’s good.”  Jesus is the ultimate example of salvation.

May 25th, 2012

Kant’s Categorical Epistemology

by Max Andrews

The distinctions and categories in Kantian Epistemology:

What are true elements of knowledge?  Kant is a rationalist (the mind shapes the object with a priori categories). A priori, meaning prior to experience. Not from experience but from definition. A posteriori, after experience.

Content goes into five senses. Content equals sense-data called intuition sense-data. There are  innate categories of the mind. They mold, condition, and give form to the senses; a hermeneutical grid for the mind not the Bible. Time and space = pure intuition. The sermons form the hermeneutic “I make the world what it is to me.”

How did these elements develop into the two realms? A hypothesis that the mind is active requires that there be a distinction between the two realms (not a blank paper but something is already present to form the ideas). The objects present in the experience of the knower. The object rests beyond the experience of the knower. What they are?


  • Def. The five later put through the grid of the mind


  • Def. Things of thought, Plato, Kant, “Things in themselves (whatever they may be)” they exist but limited by rational apprehension and limiting concept.  One cannot know the noumenal realm by pure [Newtonian] reason.
    read more »

May 24th, 2012

Theology Thursday: Immanuel Kant Part 1

by Max Andrews

Theologian: Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) on Noumenal Knowledge

More about his theology:  Kant is known more for his philosophy but has greatly influenced 19th and 20th century theology.  He is known as the watershed of 20th century theology.  You may not realize it but that vast majority of our epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and theology have been influenced by Kant.  This Theology Thursday will focus on Kant’s noumenal knowledge.

Immanuel Kant proposed the practical or moral realm of life as the proper sphere of religion. Kant sought to establish religion as the devotion to a transcendent Lawgiver whose will ought to be the goal of humankind. The theology produced by Kant remained anthropocentric (centered on man) and it leads to an inescapable emphasis on divine immanence even though Kant himself rejected it.

April 13th, 2012

Immanuel Kant and the Human Moral Situation Part 2

by Max Andrews

For a greater context of discussion please see Part 1.

Concerning the human moral situation, there is a radical evil in us that tends toward evil and is linked to our actual will.  There is good implanted in every man fighting an “invisible foe who screens himself behind reason.”  Humans freely sin and are personally responsible to the God postulated and known to be true in the moral act.  Our sin goes against the categorical imperative of the mind.

Humans ought to be perfectible and ultimately can be perfected, this is living in the cat-imp Which every is obligated to keep.  Religion in Christianity gives a moral lawgiver whose will ought to be man’s final goal and end which is the ultimate goal for morality, “that which alone can render a world the object of a divine decree and the end of creation.”