Today, we look back on the ancients and ridicule them for thinking that volcanic eruptions were the result of the will of the gods. We now know the geological structure of the planet and how tectonic activity functions and tends to behave in certain areas and layers of the earth. We can see the effect of the volcano’s eruption and extrapolate the causes to the movement of the iron core of the earth. Our scientific knowledge in the field of geology and volcanology have progressed since the ancients. So, has our scientific knowledge of the universe, of all that there is, progressed to the point that we can explain all that there is without having to invoke an uncaused causal agency? First, before one proceeds with any scientific account for an explanation, one must notice the metaphysical aspect of the question. This question is a philosophical question, not a scientific question. Can we extrapolate all causes to have the first cause be self-caused? Using something within the system of “all that there is” to explain the system itself (“all that there is”) is circular. The whole notion is self-defeating.
I found an interesting paper on the big crunch that may help. It focuses on a non-singular model. In essence, after the big crunch the universe is still something, it doesn’t go out of existence. They’re, of course, setting up an ekpyrotic model. They have an isotropic and anisotropic model. The isotropic has a universe out of control, seemingly, and the anisotropic is very uniform in behavior. I thought it would have been the other way around. What seems to occur after the crunch is that the antigravity, cosmological constant, inverts the universe, ever so briefly, prior to re-expansion. Just like the energy of a rubber band increases when stretched out with the tendency to snap back in on itself so does the antigravity function this way. Why it’s so much shorter when crunched and inverted I don’t know.
The list below contains several different evidences one could use in approaching and formulating a design or fine-tuning argument.
- The universe had a beginning, the standard model of the big bang.
- Einstein’s general relativity and the general property of FLRW (Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric)
- Hubble expansion
- Gamrock’s prediction of CMB (1948)
- Penzias and Wilson CMD (1965)
- Hawking-Penrose singularity (1960’s)
- Nucleosynthesis of light elements
- Inflationary cosmology
- BVG theorem (2003)
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