Archive for December 30th, 2010

December 30th, 2010

Loving God and People

by Max Andrews

I found this picture at PostSecret.  PostSecret is a website where anyone can submit an anonymous confession.  If you could place yourself in the shoes of this person, you may be able to understand it’s profound meaning and what you need to do.  Don’t love God any less, but love people more than you already do.

December 30th, 2010

Proving a Universal Negative

by Max Andrews

The question of whether or not one can prove a universal negative usually comes into question for the atheist in proving that God does not exist.  (I’m using atheism in the sense that an atheist believes that God does not exist).  The question is can an atheist prove the non-existence of a being (a universal negative)?  Yes, he can.  Usually you’ll hear arguments against atheism that suggest it’s untenable because it’s impossible to prove a universal negative (that’s really a bad argument, no one should ever use it).

What if I say that there are no tyrannosaurus rex living on earth today?  There are certainly some questions like, “Are there any polka-dotted geese that exist?”  Well, if that may be difficult to disprove universally since I would need exhaustive knowledge of the universe.  So, okay, I cannot disprove that universal claim.  So what now?

It’s actually quite simple to prove a universal negative or the non-existence of anything.  All you would need to do is demonstrate a logical contradiction within the universal claim.  So, for the atheist, I believe his best argument is to demonstrate the logical impossibility of God (to prove a universal negative).  How would he do this?  I don’t know, as a theist I don’t believe any atheist can prove an inherent contradiction in the existence of God, that’s his task, not mine.

December 30th, 2010

Determinism vs. Fatalism

by Max Andrews

It’s easy to confuse these two concepts so I wanted to give a brief differentiation.  I’ve noticed the confusion on the blog here, and I’ve had two students attempt to construct an argument for determinism when they were actually arguing for fatalism.  Determinism entails that an event is necessarily constrained to actualization by causal relations.  Fatalism entails that an event is necessarily constrained to actualization, but it is not by causal relations.  This becomes an issue with simple foreknowledge (i.e. If God foreknows any state of affairs then those state of affairs happen necessarily.  So, if God foreknows I will be sitting down at t1 do I have the freedom to stand up at t1?).

Determinism (let S be a state of affairs)

S1 → S2 → S3 → S4

Let this represent a causal relationship between each state of affairs.  So if I were to ask the question, “If God foreknows that I will be sitting down at S4 do I have the freedom to stand up at S4?”  The answer is no.  I don’t have the freedom to stand up because in each I was determined to sit down by the prior causes and God foreknows what will happen because the causes logically precede God’s foreknowledge (in the case of natural knowledge) or are concurrent within God’s foreknowledge (though this would deny all possible worlds except for one, the actual world).


S1ʹ → S2ʹ → S3ʹ → S4ʹ

In the above states of affairs, there doesn’t need to be any direct causal relationship (so let’s use prime to differentiate).  Now let’s ask the above question concerning God’s foreknowledge and the necessary actualization of any state of affairs.

God foreknows S4ʹ will happen:  Because S4ʹ will happen (by virtue of God knowing that it will happen), S1ʹ → S2ʹ → S3ʹ must necessarily happen to bring about S4ʹ.  Remember, any prior states of affairs happen necessarily as well by virtue of God’s simple foreknowledge.  This is different from determinism because the states of affairs are not [necessarily] causally determined or related to each other.

Determinism and fatalism both have their problems.  I find determinism to be problematic because of the problem of evil and human freedom.  Fatalism confuses the logical moments of God’s knowledge.  So the question I’ve been asking is simply just a bad question.  I’m taking God’s free knowledge and putting that logically prior to God’s natural knowledge or middle knowledge (depending on what I’m objecting to).  So if I’m going to ask if I can (natural knowledge) do anything other than what God foreknows (free knowledge), then I’m making the third moment precede the first moment.  It’s simply incoherent and inconsistent.